The fourth reform of the public employment sector (the so-called Madia reform) is the latest of a series of efforts to reform public employment in over twenty years. The reform marks a partial reversal of the aim pursued by that of 2009 by restoring the role of collective bargaining, that had been eroded in 2009. This is why the last reform was overall welcomed. However, if it is considered in conjunction with the recent collective agreements in the public sector, it has a less positive outcome than may appear at a first glance. Indeed, collective bargaining ends up playing a highly significant role, even more than intended in legislation. The result is to diminish the role of the administration as an employer, returning to a shared management of many aspects of the employment relationship and slowing down the efficiency of the administration.